barcode for vb References in Software Get barcode pdf417 in Software References

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Symp. on Microarchitecture, 2000, 32 41. Beaware of Malicious QR Codes Multiprocessors Parallel pro none for none cessing has a long history. At any point in time, there always have been applications requiring more processing power than could be delivered by a singleprocessor system, and that is still as true today as it was three or four decades ago. Early on, special-purpose supercomputers were the rule.

The sophisticated designs that were their trademarks percolated down to mainframes and later on to microprocessors. Pipelining and multiple functional units are two obvious examples (cf. the sidebars in 3).

As microprocessors became more powerful, connecting them under the supervision of a single operating system became a viable alternative to supercomputers performancewise, and resulted in cost/performance ratios that made monolithic supercomputers almost obsolete except for very speci c applications. This attack of killer micros has not destroyed completely the market for supercomputers, but it certainly has narrowed its scope drastically. In this chapter, we consider multiprocessing, that is, the processing by several processing units of the same program.

Distributed applications such as Web servers or search engines, where several queries can be processed simultaneously and independently, are extremely important, but they do not impose the coordination and synchronization requirements of multiprocessing. Moreover, there are a number of issues, such as how to express parallelism in high-level languages and how to have compilers recognize it, that are speci c to multiprocessing. We do not dwell deeply on these issues in this chapter; we are more interested at this junction in the architectural aspects of multiprocessing.

However, these issues are becoming increasingly more important, and we shall touch upon them in 9. If it were not for Moore s law (the increasing number of transistors on a chip) and the fact that clock cycle times are at the same level now as they were in 2003, we might not have considered including a chapter on multiprocessing in this book. However, the presence of a billion or more transistors on a chip, the multicycle access time of large centralized structures, the limitations on performance gains of ever more complex designs, and power issues that limit the clock frequencies have all converged toward the emergence of chip multiprocessors (CMPs), that is, the presence of two or more complete CPUs and their respective cache hierarchies on a single chip.

The sidebar in the previous chapter (Section 6.3) gave one example of.
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