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THREE: THE ADJUDICATION OF HOMICIDE IN NEO-ASSYRIA in .NET Maker upc barcodes in .NET THREE: THE ADJUDICATION OF HOMICIDE IN NEO-ASSYRIA

APPENDIX THREE: THE ADJUDICATION OF HOMICIDE IN NEO-ASSYRIA generate, create none none for none projects QR There are none for none ve Neo-Assyrian legal documents that deal with homicide. Although they present unrelated cases with different victims and offenders, we can take these ve texts and arrange them in the logical progression of settling a dispute.93 They concern different phases that t logically together and thus may be reconstructed as a single judicial process.

ADD 618 re ects a preliminary stage in which the rights and obligations of the parties involved in the adjudication of homicide are formally recognized. ADD 321 represents the assistance of a mediating body in a dispute over a homicide in order to settle the issues of the rights and obligations of the parties when they are in the process of negotiating the amount of compensation for a homicide. ADD 164 re ects the further progress of the case by stating the court s.

89 Harper, 90 Roth,. Assyrian an none none d Babylonian Letters, 2.213 214. Homicide in the Neo-Assyrian Period, 364.

91 Simo Parpola, Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum (London: British Museum, 1979), plate 105. 92 Literally, the owner of life. 93 Roth arranges three of these texts in such a progression, in Homicide in the Neo-Assyrian Period, 362 363.

. BLOOD FEUD AND STATE CONTROL con rmation none for none of the compensation the guilty party must pay. The nal two documents, ADD 806 and PPA 95, re ect the conclusion of the process: The payment is delivered to the injured party and the dispute is settled. Speci cally, ADD 806 refers to land forfeited as compensation, a legal transaction conducted by government of cials, while PPA 95 records a payment made in the presence of an of cial ensuring that the obligation was discharged properly.

There is a great deal not recorded in these documents. For example, no indication of the circumstances of the homicide is offered how was it accomplished Was it intentional or accidental These matters are of no concern because these documents are purely economic in nature. ADD 618 is a formal acknowledgment by the killer s village of its obligation to pay compensation and of the right of the victim s family to demand compensation for the unlawful death.

Once this formal declaration has been made, the actual killer is no longer important: No matter what happens to him, the village is still obligated. Other issues are ignored. obv.

1 na4 KISIB I d UTU-tak-lak 2 na4 KISIB I ib-ta-a !-GIS 3 na4 KISIB I tab-las 4 na4 I eri-du10 -a-a94 5 na4 KISIB I U+GUR.PAP.PAP 6 na4 KISIB KISIB a-a I 7 na4 I 8 na4 I si-lim-DINGIR KISIB mu-qa-l l-IDIM KISIB U.

PAP.PAP 9 na4 KISIB I AS.GIS 10 na4 KISIB I sa-a-ri-u-ni 11 na4 KISIB95 uru96 sa-ma12 I na-a-a gab-bu (cylinder seal of sh man) si-ri-i :97 EN US.

MES . 13 I 14 sa si-lim-DINGIR GAZ-u-ni rev. 15 s ina IGI- u-nu lu-u MUNUS- u 16 lu-u SES- u lu-u DUMUs s 17 98 18 s su su-nu US.

MES u- al-lumu 19 IGI man-nu sa e-la-a-ni. Kohler and A. Ungnad suggest that the rst two signs might be an error for URU-a + ur, s s yielding a name like A suraya (Assyrische Rechtsurkunden [Leipzig: Eduard Pfeiffer, 1913], s 388). Nicholas Postgate reads this name as I d uru HI-a-a and suggested with reservations that it might be eri-du10 -a-a (Fifty Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents [Warminster, England: Aris & Phillips, 1976], 170, 215), as does Theodore Kwasman (Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents in the Kouyunjik Collection of the British Museum, Studia Pohl: Series Maior 14 [Rome: Ponti cio Istituto Biblico, 1988], 386) and Remko Jas (Neo-Assyrian Judicial Procedures, State Archives of Assyria Series 5 [Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 1996], 63, number 41).

Martha T. Roth reads it as I URU.HI-a-a without resolving the dif culty ( Homicide in the Neo-Assyrian Period, 352).

95 Roth suggests removing na4 KISIB as well and replacing it with LU .MES, since na4 KISIB could be construed as a scribal error in which the scribe after ten lines beginning with na4 KISIB automatically wrote it again ( Homicide in the Neo-Assyrian Period, 353). 96 Postgate suggests emending the masculine determinative I to uru for two reasons: 1) The use of gabbu, all, to refer to all of the prior signatories is not the normal usage, and 2) Samana is a known Neo-Assyrian toponym (Fifty Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents, 171).

97 The colon indicates that b l dam is in apposition to the personal name Siri. See J. Krecher, e e .

Glossen, RLA 3.431 440. 98 This durative verb as part of a relative clause should be in the subjunctive, elluni, he rises, with a middle -u vowel.

However, the -a vowel can be explained in two ways: 1) A ventive. 94 J..
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